Printing was first discovered and developed in China. Primitive Woodblock printing was already in use by the 6th century BC. The earliest dated printed book known is the "Diamond Sutra", of AD 868. The movable type printer was invented by Pi Sheng in 1040. The movable type metal printing press was invented in Korea between 1234 and 1241. By the 12th and 13th century many Arabic and Chinese libraries contained tens of thousands of printed books.
Johann Gutenberg (ca. 1397 - 1468), whose proper name was Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg, of the German city of Mainz,developed European printing technology in 1440. Basing the design of his machine on a wine press, Gutenberg developed the use of raised and movable type and from the start used oil based inks (Gutenberg Bible).The Gutenberg press with its wooden and later metal movable type printing brought down the price of printed materials and made suchmaterials available for the masses. Therefore it revolutionized the spread of knowledge.