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Arabic numbers

Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also known as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. They are considered an important milestone in the development of mathematics.

The numbers were developed in India by the Hindus around 400 BC. However, because it was Arabs who relayed this system to the West after the Hindu numerical system found its way to Persia, the numeral system became mis-identified as "Arabic" in the eyes of the Europeans.

Leonardo Fibonacci brought this system to Europe, translating the Arabic text into Latin,called Liber Abaci the numeral system came to be called "Arabic" by the Europeans. It was used in European mathematics from the 12th century, and entered common use from the 15th century.

The glyphs most commonly in conjunction with the Latin alphabet since Early Modern times are 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.

German manuscript page teaching use of Arabic numerals (Talhoffer Thott, 1459). At this time, knowledge of the numerals was still widely seen as esoteric, and Talhoffer teaches them together with the Hebrew alphabet and astrology.

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